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In Scientific reports

Drug-Drug Interaction (DDI) prediction is one of the most critical issues in drug development and health. Proposing appropriate computational methods for predicting unknown DDI with high precision is challenging. We proposed "NDD: Neural network-based method for drug-drug interaction prediction" for predicting unknown DDIs using various information about drugs. Multiple drug similarities based on drug substructure, target, side effect, off-label side effect, pathway, transporter, and indication data are calculated. At first, NDD uses a heuristic similarity selection process and then integrates the selected similarities with a nonlinear similarity fusion method to achieve high-level features. Afterward, it uses a neural network for interaction prediction. The similarity selection and similarity integration parts of NDD have been proposed in previous studies of other problems. Our novelty is to combine these parts with new neural network architecture and apply these approaches in the context of DDI prediction. We compared NDD with six machine learning classifiers and six state-of-the-art graph-based methods on three benchmark datasets. NDD achieved superior performance in cross-validation with AUPR ranging from 0.830 to 0.947, AUC from 0.954 to 0.994 and F-measure from 0.772 to 0.902. Moreover, cumulative evidence in case studies on numerous drug pairs, further confirm the ability of NDD to predict unknown DDIs. The evaluations corroborate that NDD is an efficient method for predicting unknown DDIs. The data and implementation of NDD are available at .

Rohani Narjes, Eslahchi Changiz