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In Scientific reports

Precipitation is useful information for assessing vital water resources, agriculture, ecosystems and hydrology. Data-driven model predictions using deep learning algorithms are promising for these purposes. Echo state network (ESN) and Deep Echo state network (DeepESN), referred to as Reservoir Computing (RC), are effective and speedy algorithms to process a large amount of data. In this study, we used the ESN and the DeepESN algorithms to analyze the meteorological hourly data from 2002 to 2014 at the Tainan Observatory in the southern Taiwan. The results show that the correlation coefficient by using the DeepESN was better than that by using the ESN and commercial neuronal network algorithms (Back-propagation network (BPN) and support vector regression (SVR), MATLAB, The MathWorks co.), and the accuracy of predicted rainfall by using the DeepESN can be significantly improved compared with those by using ESN, the BPN and the SVR. In sum, the DeepESN is a trustworthy and good method to predict rainfall; it could be applied to global climate forecasts which need high-volume data processing.

Yen Meng-Hua, Liu Ding-Wei, Hsin Yi-Chia, Lin Chu-En, Chen Chii-Chang