Endoscopic imaging of the stomach is improving. In addition to narrow band imaging, other methods, for example, blue light imaging and linked color imaging, are now available and can be combined with artificial intelligence systems to obtain information on the gastric mucosa and detect early gastric cancer. Immunohistochemistry is only recommended as an ancillary stain in case of chronic active gastritis without Helicobacter pylori detection by standard staining, and recommendations to exclude false negative H. pylori results have been made. Molecular methods using real-time PCR, droplet digital PCR, or amplification refractory mutation system PCR have shown a high accuracy, both for detecting H. pylori and for clarithromycin susceptibility testing, and can now be used in clinical practice for targeted therapy. The most reliable non-invasive test remains the 13 C-urea breath test. Large data sets show that DOB values are higher in women and that the cut-off for positivity could be decreased to 2.74 DOB. Stool antigen tests using monoclonal antibodies are widely used and may be a good alternative to UBT, particularly in countries with a high prevalence of H. pylori infection. Attempts to improve serology by looking at specific immunodominant antigens to distinguish current and past infection have been made. The interest of Gastropanel® which also tests pepsinogen levels was confirmed.
Makristathis Athanasios, Hirschl Alexander M, Mégraud Francis, Bessède Emilie
13C urea breath test, droplet digital PCR, endoscopic imaging, histology, real-time PCR, serology, stool antigen test